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The coverage of the patina solutions will vary depending on
  • the method of application
  • the porosity and texture of the surface
  • the final appearance desired
On a smooth, nonporous surface the theoretical coverage is 75 square feet per 250mL per application - this assumes there is no solution loss due to the application method.  Actual coverage rates may be as low as 25 square feet per 250mL per application depending on method and alloy type.

NOTE:  the patina solutions do not provide a film on the surface of the substrate but rather they use metal salts and acids to tarnish and oxidize the surface to achieve the patinated finish.  It is this reaction between the substrate and the patina solution that creates the patina film - as such the theoretical coverage rates tend to be very generous as they are based on traditional coating calculations.

There are many different metal alloys available and the patina solutions will behave slightly different with each - you may wish to test for your specific application.

The shelf life of these solutions will outlast those of traditional liver of sulfur solutions as they are not affected by light and moisture.  If the application method of choice is immersion then the solution may be reused until the metal salts have been spent and no further reactions are observed.  Caution is advised, however, as the solution will become tainted with any surface contaminants present on the substrate treated.  Additionally, since the patination process is a chemical oxidation reaction, additional metal ions from the project will be transferred into the solution.  So while the solution may still be active, the patination colors achieved may vary.

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